The laser impact forming technology refers to a technique in which a coating layer of a sheet metal workpiece is irradiated with a laser, and a shock wave is generated by thermal evaporation of the covering layer to achieve plastic deformation of the workpiece.
Before the laser impact forming operation of the workpiece, the following preparations are required. First, a layer of opaque material is applied to the surface of the workpiece, such as black lacquer to form a cover layer; then, a layer of transparent material, such as water, is applied over the cover layer to form a transparent layer. Then, using laser irradiation, the laser is irradiated onto the cover layer through the transparent layer, and the cover layer absorbs the energy of the laser. After a part of the cover material is evaporated by heat, it still absorbs the energy of the laser, and the energy of the laser is converted into the internal energy of the steam, and the steam immediately becomes a high-pressure gas.
Due to the limitation of the transparent layer, the high-pressure gas forms an impact stress wave, a part of which acts on the workpiece to deform the workpiece, and another part penetrates the transparent layer to act on the surface of the workpiece, so that residual pressure is generated on the surface layer, and the surface of the workpiece is strengthened. Although a large amount of heat is generated in this process, the surface temperature of the workpiece is generally only about 150 degrees Celsius, and the duration is only a few tenths of a second, and the microstructure of the material is not changed. Laser impact forming technology is a cold working process technology suitable for use in automated production.
The laser bending forming technique refers to a technique in which a partial surface of a sheet metal workpiece is heated by irradiation of a laser beam, and then a cooling medium such as cooling water is used to rapidly cool the workpiece to cause local temperature stress to be deformed.
The length of time required for laser bending is dependent on the material properties and process parameters of the workpiece. The deformation and deformation of the part are controlled by a computer program. Therefore, in the laser bending forming process, it is necessary to pay attention to maintaining the computer database and the physical influence factor library in time to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the information.