Like the traditional forming process, the micro-forming process system is composed of four parts: material, forming process, tooling, and equipment (including tooling).
In the micro-forming process, it is also necessary to consider the design of the mold, the optimization of the process parameters, the wear and treatment of the material, etc., but the main features are determined by the micro-scale effect caused by the small size. In short, it is impossible to apply the macro process parameters, structural parameters, and physical parameters to the micro-forming process simply by geometric scale reduction, because the influence of miniaturization affects all aspects of the entire process system.
The material effects are mainly reflected in the flow stress, anisotropy, elongation and forming limit during the forming process, which are related to the microscopic crystal size of the material and the microstructure of the product. The influence on the material further affects the specific process, and the forming force, friction, springback, burr, and product precision all exhibit different characteristics from the macro process, and these effects must be considered even in the finite element program analysis simulation.
In terms of molds, it is mainly a manufacturing problem, that is, how to manufacture shaped parts of small size, high precision, inner hole, convex, and complex inner cavity. For equipment and transmission equipment, it is mainly the problem of punching and transmission speed. For example, the hole with a diameter of less than 0.15mm is punched at a speed of 300 punches per minute, and then it must be positioned under the 0.12s. A one-micron precision mold will be extremely difficult.
The adhesion of tiny parts to tooling adds to the difficulty of the operation process. Fortunately, the development of micromachines has begun to solve this problem. In addition, the miniaturization of products also brings difficulties in precision control, and related measurement methods must also be developed, and processing sites also have special requirements.